Wandin North Characteristics Of Joint Venture Pdf

LOCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FOREIGN EQUITY JOINT VENTURE

The Characteristics of Joint Ventures in Developed and

characteristics of joint venture pdf

NAWMP Desired Characteristics of Joint Venture. the fact that these arrangements do not have the characteristics of joint arrangements, but to the fact that fo r investments held by venture capital organisations, or mutual funds, unit trusts and similar entities, including investment-linked insurance funds, fair value measurement provides more useful information for users of the financial statements than would application of the equity, Revised Oct 2009 ent Sub Element/ Product Technical Expectations Minimal Content- Expected characteristics for initial Joint Venture* Implementation Plans and.

Taxing joint ventures Slaughter and May - Home

(PDF) Joint venture projects in Malaysian construction. Abstract. This study examines how transactional characteristics and the institutional environment influence contractual governance for international joint ventures (IJVs)., joint arrangement as a joint operation or a joint venture depends upon the rights and obligations of the parties to the arrangement. 15 A joint operation is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the.

JOINT VENTURE ADALAH PDF DOWNLOAD Dream Pdf Do you have a business idea and you want to work with another company to promote and sell it? You may want to consider a joint venture. A joint venture is a temporary strategic partnership (short, medium, or long-term) of a company, group, or... Joint control involves the contractually agreed sharing of control and arrangements subject to joint control are classified as either a joint venture (representing a share of net assets and equity accounted) or a joint operation (representing rights to assets and …

1 The problems associated with managing international joint ventures in Croatia Vlatka Bilas, Danijela Ćenan, Najla Podrug Paper prepared for the International Conference on Economics and … HQPlantations-owned and joint ventures Clearfell current 11-18yrs age-classes at age 25 (2020-21 to 2027-28) 15.8 100% 25% 108.6 522 Plantation harvest schedule, assumptions & …

A Joint Ventures is a good business idea to compete for tenders if one does not have all the necessary expertise that are required from a specific tender. The best of joint ventures are, above all, powerful strategic alliances that have these strategic, structural, and operational characteristics: synergistic, strategic, separate management and organization, tight operating linkages, beyond win-win, reciprocal

The Tata concept of joint sector is heavily pri­vate sector oriented, whereas the Dutt Committee concept of the joint sector was public sector ori­ented and aimed at curbing concentration of … Abstract. This study examines how transactional characteristics and the institutional environment influence contractual governance for international joint ventures (IJVs).

joint venture, and sole venture modes (see Figure 1). A brief description of the main effects of these factors is presented below and is mainly used for validating the results of this study. The main thrust of this research is on examining the effects of interrelationships among these independent factors. A detailed discussion of these effects is presented in the next section. Ownership By analyzing recent empirical evidence, the author shows that certain characteristics of joint venture multinational enterprises differ between developed and developing countries (LDCs), and that joint ventures in LDCs arc characterized by a higher instability rate and greater managerial dissatisfaction.

Abstract. The main objective of this paper is to empirically examine the moderating effect of age of joint venture in the relationships between relationship characteristics: relationship quality and … The Effect of Firm and Marketplace Characteristics on International Joint Venture (IJV) Marketing Performance Craig Julian and Aron O’Cass, School of Marketing & Management, Grif-

PDF This paper argues a case that there is a need to identify the primary criteria which need to be achieved in each joint venture project if the future of such an initiative is to be assured. Practice Notes (5) View all. Joint Ventures — Key Features. This practice note sets out the general key features of a joint venture, including the various forms of joint ventures and their shared characteristics.

The AECOM-GHD Joint Venture is engaged by the Level Crossing Removal Authority to provide specialist planning and environmental advice for the Level Crossing Removal Program. A preliminary flood and cross drainage assessment has been undertaken for the Station Street/Bondi Road, Bonbeach level crossing removal. The purpose of the report is to identify matters relating to cross-drainage that Transactional characteristics, institutional environment and joint venture contracts Article (PDF Available) in Journal of International Business Studies 36(2):209-230 · February 2005 with 265 Reads

forms: equity joint ventures and contractual joint ventures. On the other hand, founding one’s own company abroad On the other hand, founding one’s own company abroad can be realized through the purchase of the existing foreign company (acquisition) and founding a new company joint arrangement as a joint operation or a joint venture depends upon the rights and obligations of the parties to the arrangement. 15 A joint operation is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the

21 International Joint Venture characteristics in Spanish Companies: Uppsala model implications David de Matías Batalla Economics and Business Administration Dept. joint venture, and sole venture modes (see Figure 1). A brief description of the main effects of these factors is presented below and is mainly used for validating the results of this study. The main thrust of this research is on examining the effects of interrelationships among these independent factors. A detailed discussion of these effects is presented in the next section. Ownership

existence of certain characteristics, understandings and arrangements. An international joint venture is often described as the joining together of two or more business partners from separate jurisdictions to exchange resources, share risks and divide rewards from a joint enterprise. Usually, but not always, one of the partners is physically located in the jurisdiction of the joint venture. An 1 JOINT VENTURES AND ALLIANCES A Bibliography of International Joint Venture and Alliance-Related Publications by Ph.D. Program Graduates and Candidates of the

An examination of the locational characteristics of intended foreign equity joint venture (EJV) investment in China during the period 1979 to 1985 indicates that foreign EJV investment was highly concentrated in the coastal region, in the more developed areas of the provinces, and in large cities The AECOM-GHD Joint Venture is engaged by the Level Crossing Removal Authority to provide specialist planning and environmental advice for the Level Crossing Removal Program. A preliminary flood and cross drainage assessment has been undertaken for the Station Street/Bondi Road, Bonbeach level crossing removal. The purpose of the report is to identify matters relating to cross-drainage that

RISK MANAGEMENT IN SINGAPORE CONSTRUCTION JOINT VENTURES Kwok Hok Choong Andrew, Danny Then and Martin Skitmore School of Construction Management and Property Joint Ventures; Unincorporated and Incorporated Joint Ventures Sign-in Free trial To view the full documents related to this subtopic, sign in or register for a free trial.

forms: equity joint ventures and contractual joint ventures. On the other hand, founding one’s own company abroad On the other hand, founding one’s own company abroad can be realized through the purchase of the existing foreign company (acquisition) and founding a new company 21 International Joint Venture characteristics in Spanish Companies: Uppsala model implications David de Matías Batalla Economics and Business Administration Dept.

Building a successful joint venture company 1 There are well-publicised cautionary tales of public-private JVs that have attracted attention and debate; some joint venture, and sole venture modes (see Figure 1). A brief description of the main effects of these factors is presented below and is mainly used for validating the results of this study. The main thrust of this research is on examining the effects of interrelationships among these independent factors. A detailed discussion of these effects is presented in the next section. Ownership

Revised Oct 2009 ent Sub Element/ Product Technical Expectations Minimal Content- Expected characteristics for initial Joint Venture* Implementation Plans and By analyzing recent empirical evidence, the author shows that certain characteristics of joint venture multinational enterprises differ between developed and developing countries (LDCs), and that joint ventures in LDCs arc characterized by a higher instability rate and greater managerial dissatisfaction.

Joint venture marketing deals should be a part of the thinking of every executive who wants fast, impressive growth. Agora Inc. – ETR’s parent company – skyrocketed its growth by combining direct marketing on the Internet with multi-channel marketing. Joint ventures, partnerships and interests in other companies Bodies where the Australian Government (through a Minister and/or a Commonwealth entity) owns 50% or more of the equity, either directly or indirectly. Where there is an interest less than 50%, but the value of equity is material, the Department of Finance should be consulted on the potential need to list the body on the Register

Characteristics of the Hardwood Plantations in the

characteristics of joint venture pdf

Investigating the Moderating Effects of Age of Joint. Joint control involves the contractually agreed sharing of control and arrangements subject to joint control are classified as either a joint venture (representing a share of net assets and equity accounted) or a joint operation (representing rights to assets and …, JOINT VENTURE ADALAH PDF DOWNLOAD Dream Pdf Do you have a business idea and you want to work with another company to promote and sell it? You may want to consider a joint venture. A joint venture is a temporary strategic partnership (short, medium, or long-term) of a company, group, or....

characteristics of joint venture pdf

(PDF) Transactional characteristics institutional. A Joint Ventures is a good business idea to compete for tenders if one does not have all the necessary expertise that are required from a specific tender., Joint venture marketing deals should be a part of the thinking of every executive who wants fast, impressive growth. Agora Inc. – ETR’s parent company – skyrocketed its growth by combining direct marketing on the Internet with multi-channel marketing..

JOINT VENTURES AND ALLIANCES Ivey Business School

characteristics of joint venture pdf

LEVEL CROSSING REMOVAL AUTHORITY Planning. venture is important because US GAAP currently treats certain transactions involving joint ventures differently from transactions involving other businesses and joint arrangements. Among other differences, joint ventures receive unique treatment with respect to one of the criteria for existence of certain characteristics, understandings and arrangements. An international joint venture is often described as the joining together of two or more business partners from separate jurisdictions to exchange resources, share risks and divide rewards from a joint enterprise. Usually, but not always, one of the partners is physically located in the jurisdiction of the joint venture. An.

characteristics of joint venture pdf


21 International Joint Venture characteristics in Spanish Companies: Uppsala model implications David de Matías Batalla Economics and Business Administration Dept. The Tata concept of joint sector is heavily pri­vate sector oriented, whereas the Dutt Committee concept of the joint sector was public sector ori­ented and aimed at curbing concentration of …

21 International Joint Venture characteristics in Spanish Companies: Uppsala model implications David de Matías Batalla Economics and Business Administration Dept. A discussion of the entrepreneurial venture and individual, corporate and collective entrepreneurship characteristics in this section is followed by a discussion of the entrepreneurial mode in the next

21 International Joint Venture characteristics in Spanish Companies: Uppsala model implications David de Matías Batalla Economics and Business Administration Dept. 2 The Impact of Firm and Environmental Characteristics on International Joint Venture (IJV) Marketing Performance in Thailand EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Transactional characteristics, institutional environment and joint venture contracts Article (PDF Available) in Journal of International Business Studies 36(2):209-230 · February 2005 with 265 Reads The AECOM-GHD Joint Venture is engaged by the Level Crossing Removal Authority to provide specialist planning and environmental advice for the Level Crossing Removal Program. A preliminary flood and cross drainage assessment has been undertaken for the Station Street/Bondi Road, Bonbeach level crossing removal. The purpose of the report is to identify matters relating to cross-drainage that

The AECOM-GHD Joint Venture is engaged by the Level Crossing Removal Authority to provide specialist planning and environmental advice for the Level Crossing Removal Program. A preliminary flood and cross drainage assessment has been undertaken for the Station Street/Bondi Road, Bonbeach level crossing removal. The purpose of the report is to identify matters relating to cross-drainage that RISK MANAGEMENT IN SINGAPORE CONSTRUCTION JOINT VENTURES Kwok Hok Choong Andrew, Danny Then and Martin Skitmore School of Construction Management and Property

Joint control involves the contractually agreed sharing of control and arrangements subject to joint control are classified as either a joint venture (representing a share of net assets and equity accounted) or a joint operation (representing rights to assets and … Joint venture marketing deals should be a part of the thinking of every executive who wants fast, impressive growth. Agora Inc. – ETR’s parent company – skyrocketed its growth by combining direct marketing on the Internet with multi-channel marketing.

21 International Joint Venture characteristics in Spanish Companies: Uppsala model implications David de Matías Batalla Economics and Business Administration Dept. HQPlantations-owned and joint ventures Clearfell current 11-18yrs age-classes at age 25 (2020-21 to 2027-28) 15.8 100% 25% 108.6 522 Plantation harvest schedule, assumptions & …

2 The Impact of Firm and Environmental Characteristics on International Joint Venture (IJV) Marketing Performance in Thailand EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The AECOM-GHD Joint Venture is engaged by the Level Crossing Removal Authority to provide specialist planning and environmental advice for the Level Crossing Removal Program. A preliminary flood and cross drainage assessment has been undertaken for the Station Street/Bondi Road, Bonbeach level crossing removal. The purpose of the report is to identify matters relating to cross-drainage that

characteristics of joint venture pdf

The Effect of Firm and Marketplace Characteristics on International Joint Venture (IJV) Marketing Performance Craig Julian and Aron O’Cass, School of Marketing & Management, Grif- joint arrangement as a joint operation or a joint venture depends upon the rights and obligations of the parties to the arrangement. 15 A joint operation is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the

ThestabilityofstrategicalliancesCharacteristics

characteristics of joint venture pdf

The Characteristics of Joint Ventures in Developed and. Joint Ventures; Unincorporated and Incorporated Joint Ventures Sign-in Free trial To view the full documents related to this subtopic, sign in or register for a free trial., PDF This paper argues a case that there is a need to identify the primary criteria which need to be achieved in each joint venture project if the future of such an initiative is to be assured..

The effect of firm and marketplace characteristics on

LOCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FOREIGN EQUITY JOINT VENTURE. 2 The Impact of Firm and Environmental Characteristics on International Joint Venture (IJV) Marketing Performance in Thailand EXECUTIVE SUMMARY, Joint venture marketing deals should be a part of the thinking of every executive who wants fast, impressive growth. Agora Inc. – ETR’s parent company – skyrocketed its growth by combining direct marketing on the Internet with multi-channel marketing..

Transactional characteristics, institutional environment and joint venture contracts Article (PDF Available) in Journal of International Business Studies 36(2):209-230 · February 2005 with 265 Reads Corporations - Thompson Outline- Fall 1998 3. Joint Ventures- a joint venture has many of the characteristics of a general partnership with the primary difference that …

North Korea -- Characteristics of Joint Ventures With Foreign Partners, 2004-2011 OSC has identified more than 350 joint venturesa in North Korea in a search of open source information. For the 88 ventures for which we have investment amount data, the aggregate total of reported foreign investment from 2004 to 2011 amounted to $2.32 billion, with roughly half of that going toward ventures in Abstract. The main objective of this paper is to empirically examine the moderating effect of age of joint venture in the relationships between relationship characteristics: relationship quality and …

joint arrangement as a joint operation or a joint venture depends upon the rights and obligations of the parties to the arrangement. 15 A joint operation is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the Joint Ventures; Unincorporated and Incorporated Joint Ventures Sign-in Free trial To view the full documents related to this subtopic, sign in or register for a free trial.

2 The Effect of Firm and Marketplace Characteristics on International Joint Venture (IJV) Marketing Performance ABSTRACT This study examines the determinants of International Joint Venture … When talking about increasing your revenues via partnership, there are plenty of ways to do so in our 10 successful joint ventures examples (international and domestic). If you are wondering what

21 International Joint Venture characteristics in Spanish Companies: Uppsala model implications David de Matías Batalla Economics and Business Administration Dept. Joint control involves the contractually agreed sharing of control and arrangements subject to joint control are classified as either a joint venture (representing a share of net assets and equity accounted) or a joint operation (representing rights to assets and …

Abstract. This study examines how transactional characteristics and the institutional environment influence contractual governance for international joint ventures (IJVs). Abstract. The main objective of this paper is to empirically examine the moderating effect of age of joint venture in the relationships between relationship characteristics: relationship quality and …

Revised Oct 2009 ent Sub Element/ Product Technical Expectations Minimal Content- Expected characteristics for initial Joint Venture* Implementation Plans and A discussion of the entrepreneurial venture and individual, corporate and collective entrepreneurship characteristics in this section is followed by a discussion of the entrepreneurial mode in the next

2 The Effect of Firm and Marketplace Characteristics on International Joint Venture (IJV) Marketing Performance ABSTRACT This study examines the determinants of International Joint Venture … Corporations - Thompson Outline- Fall 1998 3. Joint Ventures- a joint venture has many of the characteristics of a general partnership with the primary difference that …

North Korea -- Characteristics of Joint Ventures With Foreign Partners, 2004-2011 OSC has identified more than 350 joint venturesa in North Korea in a search of open source information. For the 88 ventures for which we have investment amount data, the aggregate total of reported foreign investment from 2004 to 2011 amounted to $2.32 billion, with roughly half of that going toward ventures in venture is important because US GAAP currently treats certain transactions involving joint ventures differently from transactions involving other businesses and joint arrangements. Among other differences, joint ventures receive unique treatment with respect to one of the criteria for

Joint ventures are distinguished from partnerships for a number of reasons (see [1.1.3]). Some of the key distinguishing characteristics of a typical mining joint venture are: (a) participants hold the property of the joint venture as tenants-in-common; (b) participants contribute money, property or skill to the joint venture, but their contributions are not necessarily equal; (c) the Joint Ventures; Unincorporated and Incorporated Joint Ventures Sign-in Free trial To view the full documents related to this subtopic, sign in or register for a free trial.

The Effect of Firm and Marketplace Characteristics on International Joint Venture (IJV) Marketing Performance Craig Julian and Aron O’Cass, School of Marketing & Management, Grif- joint arrangement as a joint operation or a joint venture depends upon the rights and obligations of the parties to the arrangement. 15 A joint operation is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the

Joint Venture A Joint Venture is a legal organization that takes the form of a short term partnership in which the persons jointly undertake a transaction for mutual profit. Generally each person contributes assets and share risks. Like a partnership, joint ventures can involve any type of business transaction and the "persons" involved can be individuals, groups of individuals, companies, or Joint Venture A Joint Venture is a legal organization that takes the form of a short term partnership in which the persons jointly undertake a transaction for mutual profit. Generally each person contributes assets and share risks. Like a partnership, joint ventures can involve any type of business transaction and the "persons" involved can be individuals, groups of individuals, companies, or

When talking about increasing your revenues via partnership, there are plenty of ways to do so in our 10 successful joint ventures examples (international and domestic). If you are wondering what existence of certain characteristics, understandings and arrangements. An international joint venture is often described as the joining together of two or more business partners from separate jurisdictions to exchange resources, share risks and divide rewards from a joint enterprise. Usually, but not always, one of the partners is physically located in the jurisdiction of the joint venture. An

International Joint Ventures Handbook Section 1 – Overview Exhibit 1(a) Transaction Continuum The Comparison chart in Exhibit 1(b)compares in greater detail the basic characteristics of a contractual joint venture,equity joint venture and the establishment of a wholly-owned subsidiary,as three broad categories of international investment.We note that,for those participants who believe that Practice Notes (5) View all. Joint Ventures — Key Features. This practice note sets out the general key features of a joint venture, including the various forms of joint ventures and their shared characteristics.

Practice Notes (5) View all. Joint Ventures — Key Features. This practice note sets out the general key features of a joint venture, including the various forms of joint ventures and their shared characteristics. Joint venture partners should think about what they exit strategy of each will be once the venture comes to an end. For example the each party might have the right to call the interest of the other party or put its interest to the other party in different circumstances and per an agreed pricing algorithm.

Building a successful joint venture company 1 There are well-publicised cautionary tales of public-private JVs that have attracted attention and debate; some By analyzing recent empirical evidence, the author shows that certain characteristics of joint venture multinational enterprises differ between developed and developing countries (LDCs), and that joint ventures in LDCs arc characterized by a higher instability rate and greater managerial dissatisfaction.

(PDF) Joint venture projects in Malaysian construction. venture is important because US GAAP currently treats certain transactions involving joint ventures differently from transactions involving other businesses and joint arrangements. Among other differences, joint ventures receive unique treatment with respect to one of the criteria for, Revised Oct 2009 ent Sub Element/ Product Technical Expectations Minimal Content- Expected characteristics for initial Joint Venture* Implementation Plans and.

LOCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FOREIGN EQUITY JOINT VENTURE

characteristics of joint venture pdf

LOCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FOREIGN EQUITY JOINT VENTURE. By analyzing recent empirical evidence, the author shows that certain characteristics of joint venture multinational enterprises differ between developed and developing countries (LDCs), and that joint ventures in LDCs arc characterized by a higher instability rate and greater managerial dissatisfaction., joint arrangement as a joint operation or a joint venture depends upon the rights and obligations of the parties to the arrangement. 15 A joint operation is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the.

JOINT VENTURES AND ALLIANCES Ivey Business School. venture is important because US GAAP currently treats certain transactions involving joint ventures differently from transactions involving other businesses and joint arrangements. Among other differences, joint ventures receive unique treatment with respect to one of the criteria for, Abstract. This study examines how transactional characteristics and the institutional environment influence contractual governance for international joint ventures (IJVs)..

Transactional characteristics institutional environment

characteristics of joint venture pdf

(PDF) Joint venture projects in Malaysian construction. 2 The Effect of Firm and Marketplace Characteristics on International Joint Venture (IJV) Marketing Performance ABSTRACT This study examines the determinants of International Joint Venture … By analyzing recent empirical evidence, the author shows that certain characteristics of joint venture multinational enterprises differ between developed and developing countries (LDCs), and that joint ventures in LDCs arc characterized by a higher instability rate and greater managerial dissatisfaction..

characteristics of joint venture pdf

  • International Joint Venture characteristics in Spanish
  • 10 Successful Joint Ventures Examples (International and
  • Risk Management in Singapore Construction Joint Ventures

  • venture is important because US GAAP currently treats certain transactions involving joint ventures differently from transactions involving other businesses and joint arrangements. Among other differences, joint ventures receive unique treatment with respect to one of the criteria for Joint venture partners should think about what they exit strategy of each will be once the venture comes to an end. For example the each party might have the right to call the interest of the other party or put its interest to the other party in different circumstances and per an agreed pricing algorithm.

    Joint ventures may operate in two distinctly different ways, but, in practice, most operate as a mix of the two broad alternatives which are: • The members of the joint venture po ol their resources and the contract is executed by the joint The Effect of Firm and Marketplace Characteristics on International Joint Venture (IJV) Marketing Performance Craig Julian and Aron O’Cass, School of Marketing & Management, Grif-

    Joint ventures are distinguished from partnerships for a number of reasons (see [1.1.3]). Some of the key distinguishing characteristics of a typical mining joint venture are: (a) participants hold the property of the joint venture as tenants-in-common; (b) participants contribute money, property or skill to the joint venture, but their contributions are not necessarily equal; (c) the Transactional characteristics, institutional environment and joint venture contracts Article (PDF Available) in Journal of International Business Studies 36(2):209-230 · February 2005 with 265 Reads

    The AECOM-GHD Joint Venture is engaged by the Level Crossing Removal Authority to provide specialist planning and environmental advice for the Level Crossing Removal Program. A preliminary flood and cross drainage assessment has been undertaken for the Station Street/Bondi Road, Bonbeach level crossing removal. The purpose of the report is to identify matters relating to cross-drainage that Joint ventures, partnerships and interests in other companies Bodies where the Australian Government (through a Minister and/or a Commonwealth entity) owns 50% or more of the equity, either directly or indirectly. Where there is an interest less than 50%, but the value of equity is material, the Department of Finance should be consulted on the potential need to list the body on the Register

    Transactional characteristics, institutional environment and joint venture contracts Article (PDF Available) in Journal of International Business Studies 36(2):209-230 · February 2005 with 265 Reads the fact that these arrangements do not have the characteristics of joint arrangements, but to the fact that fo r investments held by venture capital organisations, or mutual funds, unit trusts and similar entities, including investment-linked insurance funds, fair value measurement provides more useful information for users of the financial statements than would application of the equity

    A Joint Ventures is a good business idea to compete for tenders if one does not have all the necessary expertise that are required from a specific tender. The Tata concept of joint sector is heavily pri­vate sector oriented, whereas the Dutt Committee concept of the joint sector was public sector ori­ented and aimed at curbing concentration of …

    Abstract. The main objective of this paper is to empirically examine the moderating effect of age of joint venture in the relationships between relationship characteristics: relationship quality and … 2 The Impact of Firm and Environmental Characteristics on International Joint Venture (IJV) Marketing Performance in Thailand EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    Revised Oct 2009 ent Sub Element/ Product Technical Expectations Minimal Content- Expected characteristics for initial Joint Venture* Implementation Plans and 2 The Effect of Firm and Marketplace Characteristics on International Joint Venture (IJV) Marketing Performance ABSTRACT This study examines the determinants of International Joint Venture …

    characteristics of joint venture pdf

    Joint ventures may operate in two distinctly different ways, but, in practice, most operate as a mix of the two broad alternatives which are: • The members of the joint venture po ol their resources and the contract is executed by the joint Joint venture marketing deals should be a part of the thinking of every executive who wants fast, impressive growth. Agora Inc. – ETR’s parent company – skyrocketed its growth by combining direct marketing on the Internet with multi-channel marketing.

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